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Study: “Canadians’ Assessments of Social Media in Their Lives”

Study: “Canadians’ Assessments of Social Media in Their Lives”

Economic and Social Reports
Vol. 1, no. 3 (36-28-0001)
Statistics Canada
March 24, 2021

From Statistics Canada:

This study uses the 2018 Canadian Internet Use Survey to examine reports of the negative effects individuals aged 15 to 64 experience because of their use of social networking websites or apps. Social media refers to digital platforms that allow users to create and share content (e.g., text-based posts, photos and videos) and online profiles, and to interact with other users. In 2018, social media was regularly used by about 9 in 10 Canadians aged 15 to 34, 8 in 10 of those aged 35 to 49, and 6 in 10 of those aged 50 to 64.

Six outcomes attributed to social media use are examined: lost sleep, trouble concentrating on tasks or activities, less physical activity, feeling anxious or depressed, feeling envious of the lives of others, and feeling frustrated or angry. Among all social media users aged 15 to 64, around one-fifth reported that in the previous 12 months, they had lost sleep (19%), gotten less physical activity (22%), or had trouble concentrating on tasks or activities (18%) as a result of their social media use. Around one in eight users (12% to 14%) reported feeling anxious or depressed, frustrated or angry, or envious of the lives of others.

Differences in the incidence of these outcomes across social media users in different age groups are of central interest. Compared with social media users in older age groups, larger shares of users in younger age groups report experiencing each of the six outcomes. In part, this reflects greater intensity of social media use among younger individuals, which is measured in terms of number of social media accounts used, number and types of social media activities undertaken, and intensity of smartphone use.

After accounting for these characteristics, younger individuals remained significantly more likely than their older counterparts to report four of the six outcomes. Reports of lost sleep were especially prevalent among individuals aged 15 to 19, and trouble concentrating was especially prevalent among social media users aged 15 to 24. Reports of feeling anxious or depressed or of feeling envious of others were more prevalent among youth, broadly defined in this study as individuals aged 15 to 34. Reduced physical activity and feelings of frustration or anger did not vary across age groups once social media use characteristics were taken into account.

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Posted on: April 11, 2021, 6:52 am Category: Uncategorized

Which is the Best Platform for My Library’s Virtual Storytime Videos? Viewer Question Answered!

Which is the Best Platform for My Library’s Virtual Storytime Videos? Viewer Question Answered!

Which is the Best Platform for My Library’s Virtual Storytime Videos? Viewer Question Answered!


Posted on: April 11, 2021, 6:47 am Category: Uncategorized

How to Avoid Mediocre Leadership in Trying Times

How to Avoid Mediocre Leadership in Trying Times

How to Avoid Mediocre Leadership in Trying Times

mediocre leadership graphic



Posted on: April 11, 2021, 6:05 am Category: Uncategorized

CDC makes formal announcement about extremely low risk of COVID transmission via surfaces

“Several libraries have ended quarantine of returned library materials already or are planning to soon, but I thought this still might be of interest.

According to an article published yesterday in the New York Times, the CDC has finally made a formal announcement acknowledging what scientists have been communicating for months now:  there is a very low risk (less than 1 in 10,000) of contracting the virus from touching a contaminated surface.
From the article:

“The most important part of this update is that they’re clearly communicating to the public the correct, low risk from surfaces, which is not a message that has been clearly communicated for the past year,” said Joseph Allen, a building safety expert at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

Catching the virus from surfaces remains theoretically possible, he noted. But it requires many things to go wrong: a lot of fresh, infectious viral particles to be deposited on a surface, and then for a relatively large quantity of them to be quickly transferred to someone’s hand and then to their face. Presence on a surface does not equal risk,” Dr. Allen said.”

Cleaning and Disinfecting Your Facility

Every Day and When Someone is Sick

Updated Apr. 5, 2021

The virus that causes COVID-19 can land on surfaces. It’s possible for people to become infected if they touch those surfaces and then touch their nose, mouth, or eyes. In most situations, the risk of infection from touching a surface is low. The most reliable way to prevent infection from surfaces is to regularly wash hands or use hand sanitizer.

Cleaning and disinfecting surfaces can also reduce the risk of infection.

Always follow standard practices and appropriate regulations specific to your type of facility for minimum standards for cleaning and disinfection. This guidance is indicated for buildings in community settings and is not intended for healthcare settings or for other facilities where specific regulations or practices for cleaning and disinfection may apply.

When to Clean and When to Disinfect

Cleaning with products containing soap or detergent reduces germs on surfaces by removing contaminants and may also weaken or damage some of the virus particles, which decreases risk of infection from surfaces.

When no people with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 are known to have been in a space, cleaning once a day is usually enough to sufficiently remove virus that may be on surfaces and help maintain a healthy facility.

Disinfecting (using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s List Nexternal icon) kills any remaining germs on surfaces, which further reduces any risk of spreading infection.

You may want to either clean more frequently or choose to disinfect (in addition to cleaning) in shared spaces if certain conditions apply that can increase the risk of infection from touching surfaces:

If there has been a sick person or someone who tested positive for COVID-19 in your facility within the last 24 hours, you should clean AND disinfect the space.

Routine Cleaning

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Develop Your Plan

Determine What Needs to Be Cleaned

Consider the type of surface and how often the surface is touched. Generally, the more people who touch a surface, the higher the risk. Prioritize cleaning high-touch surfaces.

Determine How Often To Clean

  • High-touch surfaces should be cleaned at least once a day.
  • More frequent cleaning might be needed when the space is occupied by young children and others who may not consistently wear masks, wash hands, or cover coughs and sneezes.
  • If the space is a high traffic area, or if certain conditions apply, you may choose to clean more frequently.

Determine If Regular Disinfection Is Needed

In most situations, regular cleaning (at least once a day) is enough to sufficiently remove virus that may be on surfaces. However, if certain conditions apply, you may choose to disinfect after cleaning.

Consider the Resources and Equipment Needed

Keep in mind the availability of cleaning products and the personal protective equipment (PPE) appropriate for cleaners and disinfectants (if needed).


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Clean High-Touch Surfaces

Clean high-touch surfaces at least once a day or as often as determined is necessary. Examples of high-touch surfaces include: pens, counters, shopping carts, tables, doorknobs, light switches, handles, stair rails, elevator buttons, desks, keyboards, phones, toilets, faucets, and sinks.

Protect Yourself and Other Cleaning Staff

  • Ensure cleaning staff are trained on proper use of cleaning (and disinfecting, if applicable) products.
  • Wear gloves for all tasks in the cleaning process.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water for 20 seconds after cleaning. Be sure to wash your hands immediately after removing gloves.
    • If hands are visibly dirty, always wash hands with soap and water.
    • If soap and water are not available and hands are not visibly dirty, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol, and wash with soap and water as soon as you can.
  • Special considerations should be made for people with asthma. Some cleaning and disinfection products can trigger asthma. Learn more about reducing your chance of an asthma attack while disinfecting to prevent COVID-19.

Disinfect Safely When Needed

If you determine that regular disinfection may be needed

  • If your disinfectant product label does not specify that it can be used for both cleaning and disinfection, clean visibly dirty surfaces with soap or detergent before disinfection.
  • Use a disinfectant product from the EPA List Nexternal icon that is effective against COVID-19. Check that the EPA Registration numberexternal icon on the product matches the registration number in the List N search tool. See Tips on using the List N Toolexternal icon.
  • Always follow the directions on the label to ensure safe and effective use of the product. The label will include safety information and application instructions. Keep disinfectants out of the reach of children. Many products recommend keeping the surface wet with a disinfectant for a certain period (see product label).
  • Always take necessary safety precautions.
    • Ensure adequate ventilation while using the product.
    • Wear gloves. Gloves should be removed carefully to avoid contamination of the wearer and the surrounding area. Additional PPE, such as glasses or goggles, might be required depending on the cleaning/disinfectant products being used and whether there is a risk of splash.
  • Use chemical disinfectants safely! Always read and follow the directions on the label of cleaning and disinfection products to ensure safe and effective use.
    • Wear gloves and consider glasses or goggles for potential splash hazards to eyes.
    • Ensure adequate ventilation (for example, open windows).
    • Use only the amount recommended on the label.
    • If diluting with water is indicated for use, use water at room temperature (unless stated otherwise on the label).
    • Label diluted cleaning or disinfectant solutions.
    • Store and use chemicals out of the reach of children and pets.
    • Do not mix products or chemicals.
    • Do not eat, drink, breathe, or inject cleaning and disinfection products into your body or apply directly to your skin. They can cause serious harm.
    • Do not wipe or bathe people or pets with any surface cleaning and disinfection products.

See EPA’s Six Steps for Safe and Effective Disinfectant Useexternal icon

Alternative Disinfection Methods

  • The effectiveness of alternative surface disinfection methodsexternal icon, such as ultrasonic waves, high intensity UV radiation, and LED blue light against the virus that causes COVID-19 has not been fully established.
  • CDC does not recommend the use of sanitizing tunnels. Currently, there is no evidence that sanitizing tunnels are effective in reducing the spread of COVID-19. Chemicals used in sanitizing tunnels could cause skin, eye, or respiratory irritation or injury.
  • In most cases, fogging, fumigation, and wide-area or electrostatic spraying is not recommended as a primary method of surface disinfection and has several safety risks to consider.

Clean and Disinfect Specific Types of Surfaces

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Soft surfaces such as carpet, rugs, and drapes
  • Clean the surface using a product containing soap, detergent, or other type of cleaner appropriate for use on these surfaces.
  • Launder items (if possible) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Use the warmest appropriate water setting and dry items completely.
  • If you need to disinfect, use a product from EPA List Nexternal icon  approved for use on soft surfaces
  • Vacuum as usual.
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Laundry such as clothing, towels, and linens
  • Use the warmest appropriate water setting and dry items completely.
  • It is safe to wash dirty laundry from a person who is sick with other people’s items.
  • If handling dirty laundry from a person who is sick, wear gloves and a mask.
  • Clean clothes hampers or laundry baskets according to guidance for surfaces.
  • Wash hands after handling dirty laundry.
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Electronics such as tablets, touch screens, keyboards, remote controls, and ATM machines
  • Consider putting a wipeable cover on electronics, which makes cleaning and disinfecting easier.
  • Follow the manufacturer’s instructions and recommendations for cleaning the electronic device.
  • For electronic surfaces that need to be disinfected, use a product on EPA List Nexternal icon that meets manufacturer’s recommendations. Many of the products for electronics contain alcohol because it dries quickly.
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Outdoor areas
  • Spraying cleaning products or disinfectants in outdoor areas – such as on sidewalks, roads, or groundcover – is not necessary, effective, or recommended.
  • High-touch surfaces made of plastic or metal, such as grab bars, play structures, and railings, should be cleaned regularly.
  • Cleaning and disinfection of wooden surfaces (such as wood play structures, benches, tables) or groundcovers (such as mulch and sand) is not recommended.

Clean and Disinfect Your Facility When Someone is Sick

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If there has been a sick person or someone who tested positive for COVID-19 in your facility within the last 24 hours, you should clean and disinfect the spaces they occupied.

Before cleaning and disinfecting

  • Close off areas used by the person who is sick and do not use those areas until after cleaning and disinfecting.
  • Wait as long as possible (at least several hours) before you clean and disinfect.

While cleaning and disinfecting

  • Open doors and windows and use fans or HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) settings to increase air circulation in the area.
  • Use products from EPA List Nexternal icon according to the instructions on the product label.
  • Wear a mask and gloves while cleaning and disinfecting.
  • Focus on the immediate areas occupied by the person who is sick or diagnosed with COVID-19 unless they have already been cleaned and disinfected.
  • Vacuum the space if needed. Use a vacuum equipped with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and bags, if available.
    • While vacuuming, temporarily turn off in-room, window-mounted, or on-wall recirculation heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems to avoid contamination of HVAC units.
    • Do NOT deactivate central HVAC systems. These systems provide better filtration capabilities and introduce outdoor air into the areas that they serve.
  • It is safe to wash dirty laundry from a person who is sick with COVID-19 with other people’s items, if needed.
  • Ensure safe and correct use and storage of cleaning and disinfectant products, including storing such products securely and using PPE needed for the cleaning and disinfection products.

If less than 24 hours have passed since the person who is sick or diagnosed with COVID-19 has been in the space, clean and disinfect the space.

If more than 24 hours have passed since the person who is sick or diagnosed with COVID-19 has been in the space, cleaning is enough. You may choose to also disinfect depending on certain conditions or everyday practices required by your facility.

If more than 3 days have passed since the person who is sick or diagnosed with COVID-19 has been in the space, no additional cleaning (beyond regular cleaning practices) is needed.

Additional Considerations for Employers and Facility Operators

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  • Educate workers who clean, wash laundry, and pick up trash to recognize the symptoms of COVID-19.
  • Develop policies to protect and train workers before assigning cleaning and disinfecting tasks.
    • To protect workers from hazardous chemicals, training should include when to use PPE, what PPE is necessary (refer to Safety Data Sheet for specific cleaning and disinfection products), how to properly put on, use, and take off PPE, and how to properly dispose of PPE.
  • Ensure workers are trained to read labels on the hazards of the cleaning and disinfecting chemicals used in the workplace according to OSHA’s Hazard Communication standard (29 CFR 1910.1200external icon).
  • Comply with OSHA’s standards on Bloodborne Pathogens (29 CFR 1910.1030external icon), including proper disposal of regulated waste, and PPE (29 CFR 1910.132external icon).

This guidance is indicated for cleaning and disinfecting buildings in community settings to reduce the risk of COVID-19 spreading. This guidance is not intended for healthcare settings or for operators of facilities such as food and agricultural production or processing workplace settings, manufacturing workplace settings, or food preparation and food service areas where specific regulations or practices for cleaning and disinfection may apply.

Posted on: April 10, 2021, 1:44 pm Category: Uncategorized

ARL, CNI, EDUCAUSE Release Final Report on Emerging Technologies in Research Libraries

ARL, CNI, EDUCAUSE Release Final Report on Emerging Technologies in Research Libraries

Posted on: April 10, 2021, 6:26 am Category: Uncategorized

The Librarian War Against QAnon

The Librarian War Against QAnon

Posted on: April 10, 2021, 6:19 am Category: Uncategorized

Video Meeting Signals: Hand signals improve video meeting success

Video Meeting Signals

Hand signals improve video meeting success

“A study by UCL researchers has found that using a simple set of hand signals can improve the experience of online meetings, make groups feel closer to each other and that they are learning and communicating better

In their Guide to the Video Meeting Signals, they have 25 different signs.”



Posted on: April 10, 2021, 6:12 am Category: Uncategorized