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How to Disagree Well

How to Disagree

“The hierarchy of disagreement is a concept proposed by Paul Graham in his 2008 essay How to Disagree. His hierarchy has seven levels, from “Name-calling” to “Refuting the central point”.

  1. Name-calling This is the lowest form of disagreement, and probably also the most common.
  2. Ad Hominem An ad hominem attack is not quite as weak as mere name-calling.
  3. Responding to Tone The next level up we start to see responses to the writing, rather than the writer.
  4. Contradiction In this stage, we finally get responses to what was said, rather than how or by whom.
  5. Counterargument At this level, we reach the first form of convincing disagreement: counterargument.
  6. Refutation The most convincing form of disagreement is refutation.
  7. Refuting the Central Point The force of a refutation depends on what you refute. The most powerful form of disagreement is to refute someone’s central point.
Paul Graham's Disagreement Hierarchy
Paul Graham’s Disagreement Hierarchy

How to disagree productively and find common ground | Julia Dhar”



Posted on: December 2, 2019, 6:57 am Category: Uncategorized

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